Diabetics: Two large meals better than 6 small meals with same calories for controlling weight, blood sugar

Research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) suggests that two large meals (breakfast and lunch), rather than six small meals with the same total calories, are better for controlling weight and blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. The research is by Dr Hana Kahleová, Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic, and colleagues.

The study assessed 54 patients (29 men, 25 women) treated with oral diabetes drugs, aged 30-70 years, BMI 27-50 kg/m2 and HbA1c of 6-11.8% (42-105 mmol/mol). They were asked to follow one of two regimens of a restricted calorie diet, each containing 500 calories less than the recommended daily amount; in one programme the meals were six small meals (A6) and the other 2 large meals, breakfast and lunch (B2). In this cross-over trial, the 54 participants were divided into 2 groups of 27, with each group doing one of the two programmes for 12 weeks, and then after finishing moving on to the other programme, again for 12 weeks. The diet in both regimens had the same macronutrient and calorie content. Liver fat content, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function (the cells that produce insulin) were measured using a variety of techniques and mathematical modelling.

The researchers found that body weight decreased in both regimens, more for B2 (-3.7kg) than for A6 (-2.3kg). Liver fat content decreased in response to both regimens, more for B2 (-0.04%) than for A6 (-0.03%). Fasting plasma glucose and C-peptide levels decreased in both regimens, again more for B2. Fasting plasma glucagon (the hormone that converts glycogen back to glucose) decreased with the B2 regimen, whereas it increased for the A6 regimen. Oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) increased in both regimens, more for B2. No adverse events were observed for either regimen.

The authors say: “Eating only breakfast and lunch reduced body weight, liver fat content, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide and glucagon, and increased OGIS, more than the same caloric restriction split into six meals. These results suggest that, for type 2 diabetic patients on a calorie-restricted diet, eating larger breakfasts and lunches may be more beneficial than six smaller meals during the day.”

They add: “Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the energy and macronutrient content but also the frequency and timing of food. Further larger scale, long-term studies are essential before offering recommendations in terms of meal frequency.”

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Diabetologia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Original story here.
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    • Pavlína Pitáková
    • May 17, 2014

    How the name of the song from Minute 3:30?

    • Iveta Kratochvilova
    • May 17, 2014

    luxus !!!

    • Nicole Eyke
    • May 17, 2014

    How the name of the song from Minute 6:07?

    • Mikhail Popov "Statistician"
    • May 17, 2014
    146 of 149 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Sweat inducing game with great presentation, November 17, 2010
    Mikhail Popov “Statistician” (Pittsburgh, PA) –

    = Fun:5.0 out of 5 stars 
    This review is from: EA Sports Active 2 – Playstation 3 (Video Game)
    I wasn’t aware EASA2 came out yesterday and I decided to do something I usually never do: buy an expensive product without reading the reviews. Totally worth the gamble.

    The game comes with two programs you can enroll in: a 9-week exercise program and 3-week cardio program. It’s recommended that you start off with the 3-week one but I decided to jump into the 9-week one. You’re also given a choice between 3 difficulty levels (which you can adjust at a later time): Easy, Medium, and Hard. I went with Hard and it definitely showed. It was a great 30 minute workout that had me sweating hard by the end.

    I bought the PS3 version which uses three sensors that connect wirelessly to a USB peripheral. One goes on your left forearm, one on the right, and the last one goes on your right thigh. Setting everything up was a breeze and after I completed the avatar creation process (which you shouldn’t expect much from if you’re a heavy RPG player like me), I filled out some surveys for the in-game journal (for better tracking) and then proceeded with my first workout session using EASA2.

    So far I’ve found the music tracks enjoyable but I’m probably going to make my own playlist and import it into the game pretty soon. The exercises are wonderfully paced and the mountain bike one is a lot of fun. You can make custom workout sessions and track all the progress you’ve made and create schedules and view your workout calendar.

    All the data is stored on EA’s servers and a lot of it is accessible from EASportsActive.com; the companion website is mostly functional but does have a few janky (buggy) moments. EA is not known for excellent launches (online stat tracking for Battlefield Bad Company 2 was an atrocious mess for the first few weeks), but you should expect excellent functionality soon.

    If you’re interested in doing this thing with a partner, the game features a 2-player mode if you buy another set of sensors (so far EA is only selling bundles) and that seems like it might be really fun. I don’t have friends willing to shell out $110 on something like this but I can see couples getting a lot out of buying 2 bundles.

    If you’re even remotely interested in exercising at home without buying monetarily and spatially expensive equipment, then EA SPORTS Active 2.0 is the product for you. Recommendation based on the first day impressions? Buy it.

    P.S. The bundle comes with a resistance band but neither the manual nor the game instruct you to put it together prior to starting your workout. Just when I was really getting into it, I had to pause the whole thing in order to set up the resistance band. It’s a bit of a lame oversight on the developer’s side, but definitely not a deal breaker.


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    • Freeline Skater
    • May 17, 2014
    71 of 78 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Real Fitness on the PS3, November 18, 2010

    = Fun:5.0 out of 5 stars 
    This review is from: EA Sports Active 2 – Playstation 3 (Video Game)
    EA Sports Active 2 for PS3 comes with everything you need in the box. It doesn’t use the move controllers. This is so exercises can be hands-free in case you wanted to use weights with some of the resistance routines.

    If you are looking for an alternative to the gym or a personal trainer… I would recommend this over any other fitness title as it provides real exercises instead of routines where you can only wonder if you are getting an effective workout. The routines and programs in this software were designed by personal trainers.

    You can have the software create a workout routine for you focusing on cardio, upper body, lower body, core, or full body. You can also create your own personal routines. When you create your own routine, the software lets you know what percentages of the body you are covering. Such as 50% upper body, 20% lower body, 10% core, 15% cardio. This is so you can be sure you are tailoring the workout to what you want. There won’t be any guessing on if you are working the body effectively.

    There is a 21 day cardio program and a nine week total fitness program which also features weekly fitness tests that measure how long it takes for your heart rate to recover.

    This software uses motion sensors to make sure you are doing the exercises properly. These may present a problem initially for some people as they may put them on incorrectly. They aren’t difficult to put on, it’s just one may overlook something about them when first using them. Overall, they work excellent.

    Two people can play if there is an extra set of motion sensors. These should be available for purchase from the EA website.

    The heart rate monitor is accurate as well as it shows you and saves your heart rate data. This enables you to see your intensity levels on your workouts. You can make sure you are working out in the right zone and not overdoing it or underdoing it.

    There is a journal that is optional for you to fill out that keeps track of your nutrition and workout progress. If you already know quite a bit about fitness and nutrition, you may find this repetitive. I do, I still choose to use it though, it makes it easier to know your eating patterns over time compared to writing it in a book. I know on my days off of work, I choose to eat more snack type foods. So at the end of the day, you just answer about 10 questions of what you ate and drank that day and that’s it.

    If you don’t know anything about nutrition or are confused by it, they have built in, easy to read and follow nutrition charts on what is good to eat and what you should avoid. These are very easy to follow and I highly recommend them to someone who wants better nutrition but do not know where or how to start.

    Also, if you don’t know the first thing about exercises and/or are just starting out exercising, the lead and follow exercises the virtual personal trainers perform are great. There are also tutorials before an exercise begins.
    Not only are there the traditional exercises and stretches, but there are also “games” which cover up the “exercise” to make fitness fun. There is mountain boarding where you have to run up hills and jump from rail to rail. This covers up the running in place and squat jumps you are doing.

    What I like about this software alot is that when you are doing an overall workout, you aren’t doing one type of exercise for 20 or 30 minutes. It moves from one exercise to another smoothly and quickly. So you may be doing 20 mini exercises in a 30 minute workout for example. The way it is laid out though, it covers the body areas you chose to focus on and you don’t get bored doing one exercise for 20 minutes. I think this is the thing that will keep me at it long term for myself.

    To sum up, whether you are familiar with working out or not, this is a real fitness product. If you don’t know where to start concerning exercise and nutrition and wonder if you should join a gym or hire a personal trainer, I would recommend this. It’s cheaper than a gym and a trainer, although some people do better in that setting.

    The PS3 version also will feature downloadable workouts as well to keep things fresh.

    written by The Fun Zone Nutrition Health Fitness – If you are looking for a higher resistance band than the one that comes with the package, on the site there is a chart of weight equivalents for thera band resistance tools.


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