2014/05/34797_exercise_41RlMiVFxAL._SL160_

Disturbance in blood flow leads to epigenetic changes, atherosclerosis

Disturbed patterns of blood flow induce lasting epigenetic changes to genes in the cells that line blood vessels, and those changes contribute to atherosclerosis, researchers have found. The findings suggest why the protective effects of good blood flow patterns, which aerobic exercise promotes, can persist over time. An epigenetic change to DNA is a chemical modification that alters whether nearby genes are likely to be turned on or off, but not the letter-by-letter sequence itself.

The results are scheduled for publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats and inflammatory cells in arteries, a process that can lead to heart attacks and strokes. The curvature of arteries and resulting disturbed flow influence where atherosclerotic plaques develop. Biomedical engineer Hanjoong Jo and his colleagues have developed a model that allows them to see the inflammatory effects of disturbed blood flow quickly. Jo is professor of biomedical engineering in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University.

“This new study shows that disturbed blood flow induces epigenetic changes that lead to atherosclerosis,” Jo says. “It had been known for a long time that plaques preferentially develop in curved and branched arteries, but our lab has been able to prove that disturbed blood flow can actually trigger atherosclerosis, in the presence of risk factors such as high blood cholesterol.”

Despite the demonstrated importance of blood flow patterns in atherosclerosis, it can be blocked in mouse models with a drug that interrupts the process of DNA methylation, an epigenetic change that often turns genes off. Jo’s team has identified several genes that become turned off under disturbed flow conditions, in a way that requires DNA methylation. Some of these genes may represent new therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

The co-first authors of the JCI paper are biomedical engineering graduate students Jessilyn Dunn and Haiwei Qiu, and postdoc Soyeon Kim, PhD.

In the Jo lab’s mouse model, researchers restrict blood flow in three carotid arteries on one side, in the presence of a high-fat diet. In a 2010 paper in Blood, they had found that one of the genes induced by disturbed blood flow is DNMT1, encoding a DNA methyltransferase enzyme.

DNMT1 carries out DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA. Changes in DNA methylation are important for cells differentiating into different tissues such as blood, muscle or bone, and for the development of cancer.

Dunn and her colleagues found that treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a drug that is now used to treat acute myeloid leukemia, can prevent atherosclerotic plaques from forming in the mouse model.

“While we do not envision using 5-aza for atherosclerosis treatment clinically, our results do reveal potential therapeutic targets,” Jo says.

A broader implication is that improving blood flow patterns, through aerobic exercise for example, can induce a lasting imprint on gene expression

… Continue reading here.
Fitness News — Sciencedaily
— Courtesy “Science News Daily” (ScienceNewsDaily.com) <p>

Exercise Cranky Wombat 2014 (EX CW14) is being conducted on Puk Puk Airfield at the Townsville Field Training Area from 2 April to 15 April. The exercise cha…

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Comments

    • Royal Australian Air Force
    • May 30, 2014
    Reply

    Exercise Cranky Wombat

    Exercise Cranky Wombat 2014 (EX CW14) is being conducted on Puk Puk
    Airfield at the Townsville Field Training Area from 2 April to 15 April.
    The exercise challenges Combat Support Group’s (CSG) Air Field Engineering
    capability to practice and validate its ability to establish a 250 person
    camp in accordance with CSG’s recently endorsed Concept for Operations.
    This capability has not been demonstrated on a full-scale flight before. Ex
    CW14 is being conducted
    during a time of significant change for No. 383 Squadron as it transitions
    from an Airfield Operational Support Squadron to a Contingency Response
    Squadron as part of the CSG re-structure.

    View Comment
    • Jason Unwin
    • May 30, 2014
    Reply

    “Cranky Wombat”! That is one hell of a visual picture. ;-)

    View Comment
    • Cattack
    • May 30, 2014
    Reply
    43 of 43 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Hard Core Sit-ups, June 26, 2007
    By 
    Cattack (Redwood City, Ca) –

    Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
    This review is from: FitBall Mini Exercise Ball FBMINI 9″ Dark Blue (Misc.)
    My personal trainer recommended using this smaller ball as support when doing sit-ups as it really works the core. Crunches and regular sit-ups tend not to work all the stomach muscles or is [….] the back. However, when used at base of your back, this ball really helps focus on the core muscles. I highly recommend this product.

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    • T. Hipona "little amazon woman"
    • May 30, 2014
    Reply
    43 of 46 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    great buy, April 22, 2008
    By 
    T. Hipona “little amazon woman” (New York, NY) –
    (REAL NAME)
      

    This review is from: FitBall Mini Exercise Ball FBMINI 9″ Dark Blue (Misc.)
    I use this ball to do crunches. It works the muscles of the back in addition to the abs, and gives you amazing overall abdominal strength. It’s the same product as the green Bender Ball that’s advertised on TV (I bought one of those too, not as high quality). Only thing is it doesn’t come with an excercise DVD, but you can buy one seperately (I just bought the “Pilates Mini-Ball Advanced Workout” coincidentally by Leslee Bender of the Bender Ball). There are many other things to do with this little guy besides abs. Very good quality and you really don’t need a pump to inflate it! So cheap too!

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    • Jules in SA
    • May 30, 2014
    Reply
    25 of 26 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Think small for good toning, December 24, 2007
    By 
    Jules in SA (Garden Ridge, TX USA) –

    Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
    This review is from: FitBall Mini Exercise Ball FBMINI 9″ Dark Blue (Misc.)
    I ordered this mini exercise ball for use in my daily stretching. I use it every day for situps (pressed between my knees) and bicycles. I also use it to stretch backwards by arching my back over it from a sitting position. It provides good support. It is easy to keep in the living room, out of the way since it is small. Unfortunately my kids love it for a soccer ball. It did ship fast as promised. I’d recommend it.

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