2014/03/ad69e_exercise_41Ywo0JlIDL._SL160_

Exercise, surgically removing belly fat improves cognition in obese, diabetic mice

Cognitive decline that often accompanies obesity and diabetes can be reversed with regular exercise or surgical removal of belly fat, scientists report.

A drug already used to treat rheumatoid arthritis also helps obese/diabetic adult mice regain their ability to learn and comprehend, while transplanting belly fat to a normal mouse reduces those abilities, said Dr. Alexis M. Stranahan, neuroscientist at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University.

Studies in humans and animals indicate that obesity and diabetes — which often go hand in hand — essentially triple the risk of mild cognitive impairment as well as Alzheimer’s. Stranahan focused on the effect of fat- and diabetes-associated inflammation in the brain’s hippocampus, the center of learning and memory.

“These obese diabetic mice have very high levels of inflammatory cytokines and I think it’s because their bodies are reacting to the invasion of fat into tissues where it does not belong,” said Stranahan, corresponding author of the study in The Journal of Neuroscience. “It’s almost as if the fat were an external pathogen.”

Cytokines are major components of an immune response that typically targets invaders such as viruses. “They kind of mobilize all the natural killer cells and macrophages to kill off whatever is causing the pathogenic environment,” Stranahan said. After clearing debris or danger, cytokine levels should subside. However in obesity, fat appears viewed as a chronic invader that keeps levels of interleukin-1 beta and inflammation high.

Like a perfect storm, obesity also weakens the protective blood-brain barrier, easing access of high interleukin-1 beta levels to the brain.

Inside the brain, interleukin-1 beta turns normally supportive microglial cells predatory. Microglia typically scarf up trash and infectious agents in the brain but when interleukin-1 beta binds to their receptors, microglia signal neurons to malfunction. Microglia then consume neuronal synapses, the major points of communication between brain cells. “This interleukin-1 beta signal makes them predatory. They eat them up,” Stranahan said.

Exercise and surgery lower levels of the troublemaker in the body, so it doesn’t affect the brain while the cytokine antagonist sequesters interleukin-1 beta so it can’t reach receptors on the neurons or microglia.

While exercise is likely the best strategy, Stranahan suspects that this type of pharmacological intervention could also help patients who can’t exercise, such as the frail and elderly. Liposuction likely is not a viable solution since scientists removed 15 to 20 percent of the mouse’s body weight, far more fat than typical liposuction in humans.

Interestingly, Stranahan’s previous studies have shown that healthy mice, which may run five to 10 kilometers weekly on running wheels, dropped to a fraction of that activity level as they got fat.

“They stop voluntarily exercising once they start to become obese,” she said. Pushing fat mice to resume normal activity for three months, reduced obesity and brain inflammation and helped repair synaptic dysfunction. In

… Continue reading here.
Fitness News — Sciencedaily
— Courtesy “Science News Daily” (ScienceNewsDaily.com) <p>

Score: 14.633 (6.0, 8.633) – Vanessa Ferrari (ITA) March 1, 2014 – Greensboro Coliseum – Greensboro, N.C..

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    • J. York
    • March 3, 2014
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    57 of 59 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Good 7cm ball, July 10, 2013
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    J. York (Cypress, TX United States) –
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    Amazon Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
    UPDATE
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    After a month or so, I no longer had to “top off” the ball any more. It holds the right amount of air all the time. I still use it frequently and am happy with this purchase. Bumping to 5 stars.

    ORIGINAL
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    This ball is well constructed and holds air fairly well. So far I’m pleased with it. I mostly use it for core exercises and to sit on while watching TV.

    I only give it 4 stars because I do seem to have to top it off with the foot pump about once a week. I think maybe the new rubber was stretching out because lately it has needed refilling less often. Hopefully that will stabilize completely. Even requiring a few pumps every week isn’t bothering me too much.

    I weigh close to 300 pounds and even when I bounce on this thing pretty hard, it holds up fine. It seems to be as strong as advertised.

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    • BenJJ "BenJJ"
    • March 3, 2014
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    48 of 50 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    GREAT CUSTOMER SERVICE!, July 15, 2013
    Amazon Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
    Ordered the 75 cm 2000lbs Anti Burst Exercise Stability Ball with Pump based on the reviews on Amazon. Got it promptly. Pumped it up (the foot pump is great!) and . . . it looked small. Measured it. It was the 55cm model. Contacted Amazon. Nothing they could do since it wasn’t ‘fulfilled’ by them. After a longish back and forth chat I finally understood what ‘fulfilled’ means. Amazon refunded the cost and sent me a mailer to send it back to them. I also wrote Black Mountain Products. The next day I got a very nice letter from Justin M at BMP in which he apologized for the snafu and offered to send me the correct size ball–free–and told me I could keep the one I had received. WOW! Thanks! Obviously I sent back the smaller ball and am looking forward to getting the larger one. So, kudos to both Black Mountain Products and to Amazon.

    Follow-up after using the ball for a few days. The ball was inflated at a lower altitude and shipped to me above 9000 ft. The ball circumference when i got it was 104′. Tighter than a drum! After a few days I let the air out to the proper size (94′) and continue to use it on a daily basis. This thing seems really indestructible!

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    • Heather Getsay
    • March 3, 2014
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    34 of 34 people found the following review helpful
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Excellent!, May 30, 2013
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    If you’re into P90X this ball should work great! The price is right and the construction is very heavy duty. It should last a lifetime. The pump that came with it did the job in about 4 minutes. Overall, an excellent stability ball.

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